Nanomaterials

A material having particles or constituents of nanoscale dimensions, or one that is produced by nanotechnology is a Nanomaterial. They are of types like carbon based, metal based, dendrimers and composites. Useful applications can be observed in the cases of nanomedicine, nanobiotechnology, green nanotechnology, energy applications of nanotechnology, industrial applications of nanotechnology, potential applications of carbon nanotubes and nanoart. The characteristic properties of nanomaterials show wide usage in the current trending technology of material design. The general methods of synthesis are Bottom-Up approach which includes the chaotic and controlled processes and Top-Down approach which includes various methods of nanolithography. Current applications of nanoscale materials include very thin coatings used, for example, in electronics and active surfaces (for example, self-cleaning windows). In most applications the nanoscale components will be fixed or embedded but in some, such as those used in cosmetics and in some pilot environmental remediation applications, free nanoparticles are used. The ability to machine materials to very high precision and accuracy (better than 100nm) is leading to considerable benefits in a wide range of industrial sectors, for example in the production of components for the information and communication technology, automotive and aerospace industries.

Magnetically tunable photonic structures are prepared in alkanol solutions by using silica-modified super paramagnetic Fe3O4 colloids as building blocks. Repulsive electrostatic and magnetically induced attractive forces contribute to the ordering of the Fe3O@ SiO2 colloids. The ability to form tunable photonic structures in non-aqueous solutions allows the fabrication of field-responsive polymer composite materials films for potential applications as displays and sensors. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are materials in which metal – to-organic ligand interactions yield porous coordination networks with record-setting surface areas surpassing activated carbons and zeolites. They are used in the storage and separations of gases, catalysis and others. There are two major methods to construct DNA Nano structures, the tile-based and DNA origami methods. The tile-based approach is an ancient method that provides a good tool to construct small and simple structures, usually with multiple repeated domains. In contrast, the origami method, at present, would appear to be more appropriate for the construction of bigger, more sophisticated and defined structures which facilitate molecular modelling.

In the past decade, lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries have been considered as one of the viable alternative technologies for applications such as electrical vehicles and grid energy storage for renewable energies (e.g., solar and wind) due to their high energy density and long cycle life. Recent nanotechnology leads to the development of advanced electrode materials for high-performance Li-ion batteries. The recent advances are in graphene-based composites and their application as cathode materials for Li-ion batteries. They focus on the synthetic methods of graphene-based composites and their superior electrochemical performance in Li-ion batteries.  Advances in oxide semiconductor materials and devices continue to fuel leading edge developments in display technology, and transparent electronics. Nano crystalline oxide semiconductor offers a host of advantages such as low cost and high scalability. In semiconductor device applications, oxide semiconductors stem from a number of attributes primarily their ease of processing, and high field effect mobility, rising in stackable process nature on silicon circuits.

  • Types of nanomaterials
  • Nanomaterials applications
  • Properties of nanomaterials
  • Nanomaterials synthesis
  • Nanotechnology in materials
  • Nanoporous membranes

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