Felipe León Olivares graduated from the UNAM´s Chemistry Faculty as a Chemist and he has a PhD in Education from the Instituto Politécnico Nacional’s (IPN) Centro de Invstigación de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV). He is currently a professor at the Escuela Nacional Preparatoria-UNAM. He has specialized in the history of chemistry in Mexico. He has published 20 papers in different journals and coautor of 7 books and 5 chapters about the history of chemistry. He is advisor of the Master Educacion Media Superior (MADEMS- Facultad de Química-UNAM).
The aim of this paper is to analyze the chemistry lecture and cabinet in the Escuela Nacional Preparatoria (ENP by its acronym in Spanish) at the end of 19th century. Nowadays, the ENP is part of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México’s (UNAM by its acronym in Spanish) high school subsystem. On one hand, the study to show the material culture of the ENP’s Chemistry cabinet, as part of the Chemistry lecture and the lecturer’s academic formation. On the other hand, the books that were used during the lectures between the years 1867 and 1900. Finally, the work is based on archive work, such as the UNAM’s Historic Archive through the Fondo Escuela Nacional Preparatoria. Furthermore, the UNAM’s Archivo Histórico de la Antigua Escuela Nacional de Medicina (AHAENM by its acronym in Spanish), particularly the Student’s Files.
C H Wong has his expertise in Monte Carlo simulation and ab-initio calculation in material science. He has passion in searching for 300 K superconductors. He has joined in an experimental physics group and was trained to conduct AC calorimetry in the resolution better than 5 decimal places during his Doctoral degree in Hong Kong. He made contributions in capturing tiny superconducting signals in nanostructured materials and also discovered more fundamental physics of superconductors based on the ultra-weak heat capacity anomaly. After he graduated in 2015, he explores in theoretical condensed matter physics as a Postdoctoral Researcher in Russia, in order to design high temperature superconductors from theoretically point of view. He has constructed a stochastic model for carbon nanowire carrying extremely large Debye frequency and proposes the algorithm towards stabilized carbon nanowires array.
A plenty of theoretical studies have been conducted by DFT to predict the physical properties of carbon chain. In the present work we develop a powerful Monte Carlo algorithm of the carbon chains ordered into 3D hexagonal array. Our group develops a new routine to probe the phase transition between the alpha and beta carbyne based on the chemical bond and atomic distributions. Our model confirms that the cumulene phase is more energetic preferable at low temperatures but the carbon chain prefers to switch into polyvine phase at high temperatures. The bond softening temperature is observed at 480 K. The larger bond softening temperature is observed in the presence of interstitial doping but it does not show length-dependence. The elastic modulus of the carbon chains is 1.7 TPa at 5 K and the thermal expansion is +70 µ K-1 at 300 K via monitoring the resultant atomic vibrations and bond distributions. Thermal fluctuation in terms of heat capacity as a function of temperatures shows that the melting point is around 3800 K. The carbon atoms along the carbon nanowire arranged in relaxed state is displayed at the end.