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2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Materials Science and Chemistry, will be organized around the theme “Strategic Approach Leading to Unfolding Tactics in the World of Materials Chemistry”
Materials Chemistry 2017 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Materials Chemistry 2017
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Material science and engineering, also commonly known as materials science, encompasses the science, chemical engineering and chemical technology of materials and is an integrative subject which gives an idea about the discovery and design of new materials. It deals with studying materials through the materials paradigm (synthesis, structure, properties, and performance). In accordance with chronology, materials are segregated into natural and synthetic and they in turn are divided into inorganic, organic, bulk, micro scale and Nano particles. These various materials exhibit different properties according to their nature. This leads to the advancement in the field of electronics and photonics through basic, potentially transformative materials science research.
Energy materials like photovoltaic cells help in sustaining energy resources. Mining and metallurgical studies involve in the manufacturing processes which convert raw materials into useful products adapted to human needs. It deals with materials-processing, their properties, and their selection and application. Computational Materials Science has a huge scope and calls for hierarchical and multi-scale methods involving modelling, simulation and first-principle calculations on all materials classes.
Optimization processes are particle packing problems, such as how densely hard particles can fill a volume; topology optimization method can be used to determine material microstructures with optimized or targeted properties and the generation of realizations of random heterogeneous materials with specified but limited microstructural information.
- Track 1-1Various species of materials and materialistic properties
- Track 1-2Electronic and photonic materials
- Track 1-3Catalytic materials for energy
- Track 1-4Mining and metallurgy
- Track 1-5Computational materials science
- Track 1-6Optimization of materials and structures
The essence of Materials Chemistry can be observed in various fields i.e., organic, inorganic, analytical, physical, organometallic, cosmetic, petro and forensic studies. Organic chemistry provides organic polymers for use in structures, films, fibres, coatings, and so on. It provides materials with complex functionality, a bridge between materials science and medicine and provides a sophisticated synthetic entry into nanomaterial. Inorganic chemistry deals with the structure, properties, and reactions of molecules that do not contain carbon, such as metals. It helps us to understand the behaviour and the characteristics of inorganic materials which can be altered, separated, or used in products, such as ceramics and superconductors. Analytical chemistry determines the structure, composition, and nature of substances, by identifying and analysing their various elements or compounds. It also gives idea about relationships and interactions between the parts of compounds. It has a wide range of applications, like food safety, Nano biopharmaceuticals, and pollution control. The analytical role of materials chemistry includes the materials science lab equipment associated with materials science experiments. The basic characteristics of how matter behaves on a molecular and atomic level and how chemical reactions occur are physical chemistry. Based on the inferences, new theories are developed, such as how complex structures are formed and develop potential uses for new materials correlating materials chemistry. Study of chemical compounds containing at least one bond between a carbon atom of an organic compound and a metal, including alkaline, alkaline earth, transition metal, and other cases is Organometallic chemistry. Materials that work physiologically within the skin or aid in protecting the skin from insult form Cosmetic chemistry. Petro chemistry deals with the transformation of crude oil (petroleum) and natural gas into useful products or raw materials. Forensic chemistry is the application of chemistry and its subfield, forensic toxicology, in a legal setting.
- Track 2-1Field of organic chemistry
- Track 2-2Field of inorganic chemistry
- Track 2-3Field of analytical chemistry
- Track 2-4Field of physical chemistry
- Track 2-5Field of organometallic chemistry
- Track 2-6Field of cosmetic chemistry
- Track 2-7Field of petro chemistry
- Track 2-8Field of forensic chemistry
Materials science and pharmaceutical chemistry are disciplines at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, electrochemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents, or bio-active molecules (drugs).
Compounds used as medicines are most often organic compounds, which are often divided into the classes of small organic molecules (e.g., atorvastatin) and "biologics" (erythropoietin, insulin), the latter of which are most often medicinal preparations of proteins (natural and recombinant antibodies, hormones, etc.). Inorganic and organic compounds are also useful as drugs (e.g., lithium and platinum-based agents such as lithium carbonate and cis-platin.
Identification of new drugs, often called "hits", which are typically found by assay of compounds for a desired biological activity. Further synthesis of the formulations needs the analysis of SAR for the desired mechanism of action. If not chemical alterations of excipients in formulations can be done for better effects. Biomaterials are used to treat joint replacements, heart valves, breast implants.
- Track 3-1Preparation of chemical formulations
- Track 3-2Mechanism of action of materials in formulations
- Track 3-3Altering the action by using as excipients in formulations
- Track 3-4Treatment of current diseases using prototype materials
- Track 3-5Effects of materials in formulations
Certain principles are there to synthesize a novel material : to develop an understanding of different materials systems, to know the origins of physical, chemical, and functional properties of different materials, to study basic principles of synthesis and characterization of materials, to understand the origins of functional responses of materials and also the role of materials in science, industry, and technology. Often a pure substance needs to be isolated from a mixture or after chemical reactions (which often give mixtures of chemical substances). From ores, extraction can be done by means of oxidation catalysis and reduction whereas in laboratory by techniques like Hydraulic Washing, Magnetic Separation, Froth Floatation Method, Leaching and so on.
A ceramic is a non-metallic material composed of inorganic molecules, generally prepared by heating a powder or slurry and glassy materials are hard, brittle, and not crystalline which results in optical transparency. Solid state chemistry, also sometimes referred to as materials chemistry is the study of the synthesis, structure, and properties of solid phase materials, particularly, but not exclusively of, non-molecular solids. Thus it has a strong overlap with solid-state physics, mineralogy, crystallography, ceramics, metallurgy, thermodynamics, materials science and electronics with a focus on the synthesis of novel materials and their characterization. Mixtures of metallic materials are called alloys, are more commonly used than the pure metal. By alloying, some of the key properties of metals can be altered. Composite materials are mixtures of two or more bonded materials. The design and synthesis of these materials with different approaches can be done here.
- Track 4-1Synthetic materials chemistry
- Track 4-2Underlying principles of Materials and their isolation
- Track 4-3Ceramics and properties
- Track 4-4Glasses and properties
- Track 4-5Coordination chemistry and intermetallics
- Track 4-6Solid state chemistry
- Track 4-7Composite materials
- Track 4-8Metamaterials
- Track 4-9Acoustic metamaterials
Insilico Materials Chemistry deals with the understanding, prediction, and designing of new materials and chemistry based on computer simulations. The main function is the key to development of new materials and chemistry. To design a material for a specific function, one needs to account for interaction, energetics, and dynamics to simulate the process. Modern computational software and hardware now allow us to design materials, predict structures, and simulate function for some well-defined systems, indicating the great potential of materials design for complex systems in the near future. To be able to search for structural elements, chemical databases store the molecular topology (the atoms and their connections) in a handy way and each in a different way. Homology modeling refers to constructing an atomic-resolution model of the "target" protein from its amino acid sequence and an experimental three-dimensional structure of a related homologous protein (the "template") in which docking is a method which predicts the preferred orientation of one molecule to a second when bound to each other to form a stable complex.
In this process, 3D structure databases were selected and subjected to Molecular / Homology modeling whereas small molecule databases and molecular fragments were directly screened for the designing process. The modeling of In situ drug design includes the Docking and screening process which were undergone experimental assay involving a ligand based - pharmacophore. Understanding structure-property relationships is fundamental to the chemistry of materials and key to realizing materials’ functions. Finally the newly designed molecules were processed for Target Prediction using the optimization techniques and molecule will be selected based on the results obtained from ADME / Toxicity estimation. These chemical synthetic methods that make it possible to prepare a large number (tens to thousands or even millions) of compounds in a single process come under the concept of Combinatorial chemistry. These compound libraries can be made as mixtures, sets of individual compounds or use of chemical structures generated by computer software.
- Track 5-1Databases for chemical structure representation
- Track 5-2Molecular and homology modelling
- Track 5-3Docking and screening
- Track 5-4Target Prediction
- Track 5-5Quantitative structure-activity relationship models
- Track 5-6ADME testing
- Track 5-7Combinatorial chemistry
Materials chemistry is making a fundamental impact in regenerative sciences providing many platforms for tissue development. However, there is a surprising paucity of replacements that accurately mimic the structure and function of the structural fabric of tissues or promote faithful tissue reconstruction. Biomaterials are any matter, surface, or construct either from nature or synthesized in the laboratory and that interacts with biological systems. In biomimetic study, the structure and function of biological systems were taken as models and employed in the design and engineering of materials. Tissue Engineering involves the developmental approaches to control cell behavior through the nanoscale engineering of materials surfaces including monolayer protected metal, nanotubes and other nanotopographies/ nanochemistries. A Bioactive compound shows a specific effect on the living tissue of an organism which is biodegradable in nature. Biomineralization is the process by which living organisms produce minerals, often to harden or stiffen existing tissues. A Tunable material shows a variable response to an incident electromagnetic wave with the combination of a metamaterial. Light harvesting is the study of materials and molecules that capture photons of solar light. This includes studies to better understand the light-harvesting properties of photosynthetic organisms.
- Track 6-1Self-healing materials
- Track 6-2Biomaterials
- Track 6-3Biomimetics
- Track 6-4Cell and material interface in tissue engineering
- Track 6-5Bioactive and biodegradable materials
- Track 6-6Biomineralization process
- Track 6-7Tunable materials
- Track 6-8Light harvesting materials
- Track 6-9Genetic materials
Polymer chemistry is a multidisciplinary science that deals with the chemical synthesis and chemical properties of polymers which were considered as macromolecules. Polymers describe the bulk properties of polymer materials and belong to the field of polymer physics as a subfield of physics. Polymers are of two types-natural ( e.g., rubber, amber ), synthetic ( e.g., polyethylene, nylon, PVC ). Polymerization is the process of combining many small molecules known as monomers into a covalently bonded chain or network. General methods of synthesis include-Biological synthesis and also by modification of natural polymers. Laboratory research is generally divided into two categories, step-growth polymerization and chain-growth polymerization. Polymers are characterized by the presence of monomer units and microstructures and they can be determined by means of many lab techniques. Surface functionalization of a polymer structure is the key component of a coating formulation allowing control over such properties as dispersion, film formation temperature, and the coating rheology. The association of other additives, such as thickeners with adsorbed polymer material give rise to complex rheological behaviour and excellent control over a coating's flow properties.
Polymer blends are members of a class of materials analogous to metal alloys, in which at least two polymers are blended together to create a new material with different physical properties. A polymer alloy includes multiphase copolymers but excludes incompatible polymer blends. These materials combine high modulus, heat resistance and impact strength in addition to flame retardant. Polymer processing is done by extrusion and injection moulding; other processes include calendering, compression. Polymer testing capabilities include advanced trace chemical analysis, diverse analytical capabilities and identification of chemicals composition, unknown materials and chemical contamination. It is used to identify fundamental structural information including molecular weight, molecular weight distribution and information on branching. Polymers are manufactured under pressured conditions, pressureless conditions and so on.
- Track 7-1Polymer chemistry
- Track 7-2Polymer synthesis
- Track 7-3Polymer characterization
- Track 7-4Polymer coating
- Track 7-5Polymer blends and alloys
- Track 7-6Polymer rheology and processing
- Track 7-7Polymer testing
- Track 7-8Polymer technology
- Track 7-9Future challenges in polymer science
The effects of ultrasound induce certain physical changes like the dispersal of fillers and other components into base polymers (as in the formulation of paints), the encapsulation of inorganic supplements with polymers, changing of particle size in polymer powders, and most important is the welding and cutting of thermoplastics. In contrast, chemical changes can also be created during ultrasonic irradiation as a result of cavitation, and these effects have been used to favour many areas of polymer chemistry. In materials science, the sol-gel conversionis a method for producing solid materials from small molecules. This method is used for the fabrication of metal oxides particularly the oxides of silicon and titanium. The process involves conversion of monomers into a colloidal solution (sol) that acts as the precursor for an integrated network (or gel) of either discrete particles or network polymers. Important precursors are metal alkoxides. Polymers produced under sonication had narrower poly dispersities but higher molecular weights than those produced under normal conditions. The fastness of the polymerization was caused by more efficient dispersion of the catalyst throughout the monomer, leading to a more homogeneous reaction and hence a lower distribution of chain lengths. The electrical and magnetic phenomena alter the properties of materials for better prospective in manufacturing. Plastic fabrication is the design, manufacture and assembly of plastic products through one of a number of methods.
- Track 8-1Ultrasound usage
- Track 8-2Sol-gel conversion
- Track 8-3Sonochemistry
- Track 8-4Electric phenomena
- Track 8-5Magnetic phenomena
- Track 8-6Plastics fabrication and uses
Materials Chemistry along with Physics deals with the structure, properties, processing and performance of materials. Applied physics is intended for a particular technological or practical use of materials. Materials characterization is a broad and general process by which a material's structure and properties are probed and measured. Materials characterization usually done by the major techniques like Microscopy, spectroscopy, macroscopic testing. The scale of the structures observed in materials characterization ranges from angstroms, such as in the imaging of individual atoms and chemical bonds, up to centimeters, such as in the imaging of coarse grain structures in metals.
Materials Management and engineering focus on improving what materials are made of and how they are made. New materials enable better performance and sustainable technologies. It is always new materials that open the door to new technologies, whether they are in chemical, civil, construction, nuclear, aeronautical, agricultural, mechanical, and biomedical or electrical engineering. In this the mechanics of materials are evaluated for the better performance of the newly designed materials and general areas of dynamics of particles and rigid bodies and the mechanics of deformable solids. Strength of materials is also analysed for the future prospective and effective material construction like Organic Lunimophores and so on. Creating competitive advantage through material technologies and developments which lead to new applications comes under Functional Materials Chemistry. The concept of Materials Science and physics involves certain materialistic methodologies such as materials science quantum mechanics and other related concepts.
- Track 9-1Applied physics
- Track 9-2Materials characterization techniques
- Track 9-3Material engineering
- Track 9-4Mechanics of materials
- Track 9-5Functional materials
- Track 9-6Materials science and physics
A material having particles or constituents of nanoscale dimensions, or one that is produced by nanotechnology is a Nanomaterial. They are of types like carbon based, metal based, dendrimers and composites. Useful applications can be observed in the cases of nanomedicine, nanobiotechnology, green nanotechnology, energy applications of nanotechnology, industrial applications of nanotechnology, potential applications of carbon nanotubes and nanoart. The characteristic properties of nanomaterials show wide usage in the current trending technology of material design. The general methods of synthesis are Bottom-Up approach which includes the chaotic and controlled processes and Top-Down approach which includes various methods of nanolithography. Current applications of nanoscale materials include very thin coatings used, for example, in electronics and active surfaces (for example, self-cleaning windows). In most applications the nanoscale components will be fixed or embedded but in some, such as those used in cosmetics and in some pilot environmental remediation applications, free nanoparticles are used. The ability to machine materials to very high precision and accuracy (better than 100nm) is leading to considerable benefits in a wide range of industrial sectors, for example in the production of components for the information and communication technology, automotive and aerospace industries.
Magnetically tunable photonic structures are prepared in alkanol solutions by using silica-modified super paramagnetic Fe3O4 colloids as building blocks. Repulsive electrostatic and magnetically induced attractive forces contribute to the ordering of the Fe3O4 @ SiO2 colloids. The ability to form tunable photonic structures in non-aqueous solutions allows the fabrication of field-responsive polymer composite materials films for potential applications as displays and sensors. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are materials in which metal – to-organic ligand interactions yield porous coordination networks with record-setting surface areas surpassing activated carbons and zeolites. They are used in the storage and separations of gases, catalysis and others. There are two major methods to construct DNA Nano structures, the tile-based and DNA origami methods. The tile-based approach is an ancient method that provides a good tool to construct small and simple structures, usually with multiple repeated domains. In contrast, the origami method, at present, would appear to be more appropriate for the construction of bigger, more sophisticated and defined structures which facilitate molecular modelling.
In the past decade, lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries have been considered as one of the viable alternative technologies for applications such as electrical vehicles and grid energy storage for renewable energies (e.g., solar and wind) due to their high energy density and long cycle life. Recent nanotechnology leads to the development of advanced electrode materials for high-performance Li-ion batteries. The recent advances are in graphene-based composites and their application as cathode materials for Li-ion batteries. They focus on the synthetic methods of graphene-based composites and their superior electrochemical performance in Li-ion batteries. Advances in oxide semiconductor materials and devices continue to fuel leading edge developments in display technology, and transparent electronics. Nano crystalline oxide semiconductor offers a host of advantages such as low cost and high scalability. In semiconductor device applications, oxide semiconductors stem from a number of attributes primarily their ease of processing, and high field effect mobility, rising in stackable process nature on silicon circuits.
- Track 10-1Types of nanomaterials
- Track 10-2Nanomaterials applications
- Track 10-3Properties of nanomaterials
- Track 10-4Nanomaterials synthesis
- Track 10-5Nanotechnology in materials
Nanostructures deal with objects and structures that are in the 1—100 nm range. In many materials, atoms or molecules cluster together to form objects at the nanoscale. This leads to interesting electromagnetic, optical and mechanical properties. The term 'nanostructure' is often used when referring to magnetic technology. Microstructure is defined as the structure of a prepared surface or thin foil of material as revealed by a microscope above 25× magnification. It deals with objects from 100 nm to a few cm. Most of the traditional materials (such as metals and ceramics) are micro structured. Macrostructure is the appearance of a material in the scale millimetres to meters—it is the structure of the material as seen with the naked eye. Atomic structure deals with the atoms of the materials and how they are arranged to give structure of molecules, crystalline solidsetc., The length scales involved are in angstroms (0.1 nm). The way in which the atoms and molecules are bonded and arranged is fundamental to studying the properties and behaviour of any material. Crystallography is the science that examines the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids. Crystallography is very much useful for materials scientists. Polymers display varying degrees of crystallinity and many are completely non-crystalline. Glass, some ceramics, and many natural materials are amorphous, not possessing any long-range order in their atomic nuclei.
- Track 11-1Nanostructures
- Track 11-2Microstructure of solids
- Track 11-3Macromaterials
- Track 11-4Atomic structure
- Track 11-5Crystallographic materials
- Track 11-6Reticular chemistry and frameworks
Surface science is the study of physical and chemical phenomena that occur at the interface of two phases along with solid–liquid interfaces, solid–gas interfaces, solid–vacuum interfaces, and liquid–gas interfaces. It is closely related to study of surface, which targets at modifying the chemical composition of a surface by incorporation of selected elements or functional groups that produce various desired effects or improvements in the properties of the surface or interface. Biomedical materials are prepared from tissue engineering for the compatibility in the human body. Optoelectronics is the study and application of electronic devices that source, detect and control light, usually considered as a sub-field of photonics. These devices are electrical-to-optical or optical-to-electrical transducers, or instruments that use such devices in their operation. It is based on the quantum mechanical effects of light on electronic materials, especially semiconductors, occasionally in the presence of electric fields. Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic fields occurring in certain materials when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature. Superconducting materials are some of the most powerful electromagnets known. They are used in MRI/NMR machines, mass spectrometers, and beam-steering magnets used in particle accelerators. Molecular electronics is the study and application of molecular building blocks for the fabrication of electronic materials. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure. These carbon molecules have unusual properties, which are valuable for nanotechnology, electronics, optics and other fields of materials science and technology. Owing to their extraordinary thermal conductivity and mechanical and electrical technologies, carbon nanotubes act as additives to various structural materials.
- Track 12-1Study of surface and interfacial aspects
- Track 12-2Elements of biomedical materials
- Track 12-3Optoelectronic materials
- Track 12-4Superconducting materials
- Track 12-5Molecular electronics
- Track 12-6Carbon Nanotubes
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted much attention in the past decade. They have high specific surface area and also electronic engineering and properties that differ from their bulk counterparts due to the low dimensionality. Graphene is the best known and the most studied 2D material, but metal oxides and hydroxides (including clays), dichalcogenides, boron nitride (BN), and other materials that are one or several atoms thick are receiving increasing attention. They exhibit a combination of properties that cannot be provided by other materials. Many two-dimensional materials are synthesized by selective extraction process which is critically important when the bonds between the building blocks of the material are too strong (e.g., in carbides) to be broken mechanically in order to form Nano structures. These have a thickness of a few nanometres or less. Electrons are free to move in the two-dimensional plane, but their restricted motion in the third direction is governed by quantum mechanics. Magnetic topological insulator comprised of two-dimensional (2-D) materials has a potential of providing many interests and applications by manipulating the surfaces states like yielding quantum anomalous Hall effect giving rise to dissipation-less chiral edge current, giving axion electromagnetism and others. The chemistry of electrical, optical, thermal and mechanical properties varies in a peculiar style and these materials are applied widely in case of ambipolar electronics, transistors and so on.
- Track 13-1Synthesis of two-dimensional graphene
- Track 13-2Chemical and mechanical properties of graphene
- Track 13-3Graphene production
- Track 13-4Analogues of graphene
- Track 13-5Uses of graphene in various forms